Unfulfilled NPT Promises and Leading Challenges: Trying for survival or gradual collapse?
Unfulfilled NPT Promises and Leading...
Retrieved from: Alireza Niazmand, Unfulfilled NPT Promises and Leading Challenges: Trying for survival or gradual collapse?, international studies journal, 2019.
Since the advent of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the nuclear powers have been neglecting the two pillars of nuclear disarmament and the transfer of peaceful nuclear technology. While maintaining their arsenals, they have put pressure on other countries to focus only on the non-proliferation dimension and they have faced serious challenges to the treaty. On the other hand, discriminatory treatments have led to disagreements among treaty members and have jeopardized the anti-proliferation regime as a whole. Therefore, some analysts are worried about maintaining the legitimacy of the treaty and are looking for a solution for the survival of this regime. In fact, in addition to non-proliferation, equal attention should be paid to the other two main pillars, disarmament and the right to peaceful use of nuclear technology. In addition to non-proliferation, equal attention should be paid to the other two main pillars, disarmament and the right to peaceful use of nuclear technology. Nevertheless, the third pillar of the treaty is faced with a dual and discriminatory view by the holders of this technology and only non-nuclear states that have close ties to nuclear powers benefit this universal right. Thus, by violating Article 4, the nuclear powers have strongly opposed the efforts of countries such as Iran to acquire peaceful nuclear technology at the same time, by violating Article 1 of the treaty, they have not only stopped the nuclear weapons program of states such as Israel, but have also made significant contributions to it. on the other hand, nuclear powers are evading nuclear disarmament and urging others to design their own defense doctrine without nuclear weapons. In addition to these problems, non-compliance with non-proliferation obligations, lack of definition of a clear mechanism for disarmament of nuclear powers, apply dual standards to implement the safeguards system, abuse of Article 10 of the treaty by some states, such as North Korea, to withdraw from the treaty, the non-accession of some nuclear-weapon states, such as India, Pakistan and Israel, to the treaty, the threats of non-governmental actors and also the strategic mistake of the US government in tying the fate of the nuclear negotiations with the integrity and survival of the NPT, is one of the cases that can be considered as serious threats to this treaty. Unfortunately, the lack of significant success in resolving the above challenges has reduced the legitimacy of the treaty, which could pose a serious threat to the willingness of non-nuclear states to cooperate in strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Despite all the progressive problems and, of course, the achievements that this treaty has had so far, because of the very serious consequences of the absence of such a treaty which could lead to the steady withdrawal of states from the treaty and the attempt to join the Nuclear Weapons Club, and ultimately an international turmoil, it is unlikely that countries will agree to the destruction of the treaty, and efforts to preserve it will continue. In general, in order to maintain and expand the non-proliferation regime, in addition to holding review conferences, another step forward and promising is the recent historic vote to ratify the UN Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is the first formal international agreement on a comprehensive ban on nuclear weapons. Despite its condemnation, many sanctions and disruptions of countries with nuclear weapons and their non-nuclear allies, finally with the votes of 122 countries, they were planted the first seeds for a world free of nuclear weapons. This is the first time in contemporary history that an international treaty has completely banned the acquisition, production, testing, use or threat of use of nuclear weapons under any circumstances. Therefore, the nuclear-weapon states will be obliged to destroy the nuclear arsenal and all related facilities within a specified period of time. This is while, nuclear warfare, unlike chemical, biological, anti-personnel mines, and cluster munitions, previously lacked a comprehensive deterrent treaty and even the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) imposed only a relative and discriminatory restriction. Nevertheless, the treaty has so far not been to the liking of the nuclear powers, and while not joining the process, they continue to pressure and threaten countries that Voters in the treaty to return their signatures. Despite all the pressure, the will and courage of the countries voting on this new treaty must be auspicious and waited and saw what fate would decide in the end in this regard and which countries will eventually ratify the treaty. It is this positive outlook that has led to growing hopes for a nuclear non-proliferation regime and a major obstacle to the collapse of the non-proliferation regime.